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22 March 2018, source edie newsroom

Britain is on the brink of a subsidy-free renewables "revolution" which could create up to 18GW of new capacity by 2030 and attract £20 billion of investment, analysts have claimed.

Analysis by Aurora suggested 9GW of solar, 5GW to 6GW of onshore wind and 3GW to 4GW of offshore wind could be built without subsidies by the end of the next decade

Aurora Energy Research said the explosion of subsidy-free renewables would largely snuff out the already dim prospects for new combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGTs).

“Back in 2010 at the start of the Electricity Market Reform process in Great Britain, few would have imagined that by 2018 we would be talking about a subsidy-free future for renewables,” said Aurora head of product development Mateusz Wronski.

“Yet, this is where we have arrived, and our research highlights clearly the enormous prize and potential in the market, not only in Great Britain but across Europe.

“This will be a true game-changer for the energy industry and policy makers, with a knock-on effect on baseload technologies as well as flexible generation.”

Analysis by Aurora suggested 9GW of solar, 5GW to 6GW of onshore wind and 3GW to 4GW of offshore wind could be built without subsidies by the end of the next decade. It predicted solar and onshore wind would reach grid parity in the early 2020s, whilst offshore wind would hit the milestone in the late 2020s or the 2030s.

To achieve the projected build out, financing costs would need to be lowered through a better understanding of the merchant risks for renewable generation.

Wronski told Utility Week the renewables sector has already achieved massive reductions in the cost of building and operating assets, adding: “Cost of capital is the final piece of the puzzle that has yet to fall in place.”

He continued: “The critical bit is getting comfortable with the risks and being able to finance these projects at a reasonable rate of return of something like 9 per cent.

“If that doesn’t happen; if financing these merchant renewables occurred at say 13 per cent; then that simply doesn’t work because the cost of capital is too high for merchant renewables to become viable”.

One way of reducing merchant risks would be to “create a benchmark for the industry of a credible worst-case scenario of how low capture prices for renewables could go”.

“This is about the investment community and developers sitting together and working out a common understanding of the risks in this area”, he explained.

Path to subsidy-free solar

Source: Aurora Energy Research

Wronski said the analysis highlighted three main sources of risk to capture prices for renewables: commodity prices, including the carbon price; cannibalisation by other renewables, which depress prices as more come online; and the composition of the energy system and its impact on flexibility.

He said the last of the three was the most underappreciated and least understood, “partly because we really haven’t been in a world where system composition was itself uncertain.”

“If you are to deploy an additional gigawatt of solar when there’s a lot of batteries and electric vehicles, you get a much higher capture price than if you were to deploy the same gigawatt in a system which is very inflexible,” he added.

Subsidy-free Contracts for Difference would be a “game-changer”, according to Wronski, “providing a bridge before a deeper [power purchase agreement] market emerges.” He said they would be essential for offshore wind to achieve Aurora’s projections.

The boom would be even faster and bigger if renewables were able to stack revenues from the capacity market and ancillary and balancing services. Just Giuseppe Zanotti Design Stew Shark Tooth Loafers Men Leather Suede Polyester Rubber 43 Black R4Wul
could bring forward grid parity by five years.

Wronski said the growth of subsidy-free renewables would have major implications for the rest of the power sector, reducing the utilisation and profitability of baseload generation but boosting the business case for flexible assets such as peaking plants, batteries and demand-side response (DSR).

If the revolution materialises, Aurora expects just 1GW of new CCGT capacity to be deployed between 2017 and 2030 – a near complete collapse when compared to the government’s 2012 projection of 22GW.

“Batteries which thrive on arbitrage benefit from the additional volatility created by additional renewables, especially solar,” said Wronski. “Similarly, gas reciprocating engines and DSR would benefit in that scenario”.

Impact on CCGTs

Source: Aurora Energy Research

The findings were revealed earlier this week at an event hosted by Aurora in Oxford, during which energy and clean growth minister Claire Perry confirmed that the government would conduct a .

In September, Perry officially opened the UK’s – the 10MW Clayhill solar farm in Bedfordshire. A few months laterHive Energy and Wirsol Energy unveiled plans to build Yohji Yamamoto Ys Short Dresses Black L5FnFR
(350MW) in Kent without any subsidies. T

Tom Grimwood

This article first appeared on edie's sister title website, Utility Week

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What is jitter?

It’s the undesired deviation of a periodic signalfrom the ideal timing…

Right…

OK then…

So, even though the above definition is correct, it doesn’t really let you know why jitter is bad for a digital audio signal, how jitter actually degrades the signal or what the aural effects of jitter are. Let’s take a closer look at jitter in order to answer these questions.

First, it’s helpful to understand a bit about word clock. Here’s a graphical representation of a word clock signal:

A word clock signal acts like a conductor, providing a timing signal to all the parts of a digital audio system so that each process may be triggered at a precise moment. If you think of your digital audio system as an intricate mechanical device, the word clock is analogous to the teeth of the gears that make various parts of the device move together. Think of Charlie Chaplin in “Modern Times”:

Here’s another way to think about how a digital audio system works. Start with an analog waveform:

Now, in order to digitize this waveform (i.e describe it using numbers), let’s overlay a piece of graph paper:

Using the graph, we can describe the waveform with letters and numbers:

At A the wave is 8;

at B the wave is 11 ;

at C the wave is 14 ,

at D the wave is 15 , and so on.

We could store these numbers and use them to recreate the waveform later. Please don’t bust our chops about the obvious inaccuracy between the red waveform and the blue points, it’s an analogy, people.

So, to forge on with the analogy, imagine that the letters are samples and the numbers are bit levels. Now we’re recording digital audio. It might look like this:

At sample 1, digital level is 0111;

at sample 2, digital level is 1011; and so on.

Notice our word clock signal at the top of the graph. It’s the signal that triggers each sample in a digital audio system.

Once we’ve recorded our waveform as numbers, we can “re-plot” the points and re-draw the waveform to get back our original signal. We’ve just recorded and played back a digital audio signal.

The process of converting our waveform to numbers is called analog to digital conversion – here’s what it might look like:

The process of converting the numbers back into a waveform is called digital to analog conversion – here’s a movie of that process.

Now, throughout this whole process we’ve assumed that the vertical lines on our graph paper are evenly spaced. Imagine that we got some faulty graph paper where the vertical lines weren’t evenly spaced and we attempted to re-draw our waveform using the numbers we previously recorded. Clearly the resultant waveform would not be like the original:

Look at the top of our graph, that’s what a jittery word clock looks like. Notice that the distance between the transitions is uneven – this is jitter.

Though we’ve greatly exaggerated the amount of jitter in this graphic, it does show how a jittery word clock causes samples to be triggered at uneven intervals – this unevenness introduces distorsion into the waveform we’re trying to record and reproduce.

For another take on jitter, let’s think again about Charlie Chaplin and “Modern Times”. A film functions in a similar manner to digital audio, in that a film camera doesn’t record every instant of a scene, but rather “samples” a scene by taking a series of still pictures at a fast enough rate to fool the eye into thinking it sees fluid movement. As you can imagine, the regularity of the exposure (and subsequent projection) of film frames is crucial to maintaining the illusion of fluid movement. Back in the days of Chaplin, early film cameras weren’t so even – frame jitter made the movement seem jerky and unnatural.

If jitter gets into our D-to-A stage, it degrades the playback. The original digital recording is intact, and we just need to remove the jitter or get a better D-to-A converter to resolve the issue. Going back to our film analogy, if our projector is uneven, our film is probably fine, we just need a better projector.

On the other hand, if jitter gets into the A-to-D stage, those errors are “baked into” the digital data – there’s no recovering the original waveform. If you’ve shot your film with a hand cranked film camera, there’s no way you’re getting that jerky motion out of the film. This is why getting the A-to-D stage of a digital recording system right is so crucial.

So, what does digital audio affected by jitter sound like? To answer this question, imagine a recording of an orchestra made with a perfectly placed stereo pair of mics. If you listen to the analog output of the mic pres, ideally you’ll have a precise and wide image of the orchestra. If you closed your eyes, you could point to the triangle player, there, behind the second violins.

Smaller amounts of jitter start to cloud the precision of the stereo image – you can’t pinpoint sources as clearly. As greater amounts of jitter degrade the system, the stereo image starts to shrink – your orchestra isn’t so wide. With increasing jitter, changes in timbre occur that accentuate ugly harmonics.

To avoid jitter, use a finely engineered clock source as found in all of Apogee’s interfaces. If you’re using multiple digital devices, use a Master clock like Apogee’s Big Ben and make word clock connections using our Wide Eye cable.

Finally, be aware that frequency drift, often mentioned when discussing digital audio clock, isn’t jitter… see here!

http://www.apogeedigital.com/knowledgebase/?p=2093

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What's Eric Playing?

Base price: $49 1 – 4players. Play time: 1 – 2 hours. Karl Lagerfeld K Ikonik Straw Tote Bag Natural Black WBkNCH3xnn
Check it out on Kickstarter! (Will update when the Kickstarter is live.)

Full disclosure: A preview copy of Code Triage was provided by Brando Gameworks. Some art and rules may change between my preview and the final release of the game, but I’ve previewed it in its current state. I’ve updated this with a few rules changes already.

So far I’ve covered a bunch of different games, thematically, so I’m always trying to look for more. There’s been theme parks, smoothie-making competitions, the concept of evolution, penguin slapping, and even an Ocean’s Eleven-style heist game. Surprisingly, I haven’t played any hospitals. Thankfully, that’s where Code Triage comes in. In it, you and up to three friends play as overworked, underpaid hospital employees during a frantic shift. Can you save everyone? No, but can you at least make sure the hospital doesn’t get shut down?

Contents

So there’s a board:

Set it out, as you’d suspect. Give each player a player mat and the cubes in that color, randomly:

Then, there are three decks:

Shuffle them and place them on their various locations. There’s some … mature content on the leftmost deck, so if you’d prefer not to play with that (I prefer not to), then you might want to remove it straight away.

You’ll also find some heart tokens and the ambulance dice:

Set those aside — you’ll almost certainly need them. Lastly, add the various pawns to their spaces on the board, and you’ll want to set the game clock marker on a starting space:

For a long game (Full Time): For a medium game (Part Time): For a shorter, but still about mediumgame (Contingent):

Once you’ve done all that, you should be about ready to start! You can make the game more or less difficult by adding more starting patients:

First game: Easier game: Harder game: Hardest game:

This part’s actually pretty straightforward. The game is played over several rounds, each round comprised of eight phases. The game ends once you’ve either lost or completed all the rounds (including the round at 7:00PM).

You lose if any of the three following conditions occur:

Three patients die. You need to add a patient to the hospital, but there are no open rooms. Your score is negative.

You win if none of those things happen to you.

Let’s go through each of the phasesand I’ll explain what happens: ( Note in the first round you skip the first two phases. )

Note in the first round you skip the first two phases.

This is a hospital, so people are going to be coming in via the Ambulance. Roll the two dice, and if the Ambulance symbol is showing, add that many patients to the hospital by flipping them off the top of the Patient deck and flipping rooms off the Room Assignment deck, and then adding their health in heart tokens to them. This can be anywhere between 0 – 3 new patients per round. Remember, if you run out of open rooms and you can’t place a patient, you lose.

ELA CAT- ELA Performance Task- Testing Week Information: It is very important to be at school on time, have a healthy/filling breakfast, and a full nights rest. Students who are absent during a test will have to miss class time later to complete the test. All students need headphones or ear buds for the tests. Consider sending your student with a snack.
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No tutoring today, April 17th.

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You are invited to attend the 7th grade poetry competition on Wednesday, April 18th at 8:15 am in Mr. Watts’ room. Each student will recite their poetry by memory. The top three presentations will move on to the school wide competition.

Please consider donating a snack or refreshment. Sign up

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7th Grade Parents,

The 7th grade Joshua Tree trip will be here before we know it! In order to prepare, I would like to clarify a few things:

Also, please respond with the number of students you can drive to/from Joshua Tree.
Thanks to the success of our Jonathan fundraiser, the cost has been reduced to $250 per student! I will send out an OTA permission slip and detailed letter next week. Please let me know if you have any additional questions. The documents below have a lot of great packing tips and provide a detailed overview of what to expect.
Thank you,
Turner Watts
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Yesterday, the majority of the school (1st graders, 2nd graders, 4th graders, 5th graders, 6th grader, AND 7th graders), along with teachers, parents and other staff member came to watch the 8th graders give their Statistical Analysis presentations. The task was for students to pick any two variables of their choice and run a statistical analysis in order to determine if there is a potential correlation between the two variables. Topics ranged from height and free throw percentage, to fruits consumed and eyesight, and there was even one project on hours spent playing Fortnite and success in the game. This game is evidently inescapable. Students did an incredible job speaking to the wide ranging ages of students and it was fascinating to see the 8th graders relate their projects to even the 1st grade students in attendance. Overall, this was a huge hit here at OTA! Below are some pictures from the event.

-Mr. Solis

Posted on by Mr Watts

Monday 4/8-13 – Traffic Duty (7th)

Friday 4/13 – Last Day of Quarter (Minimum Day) and Disney Day!

Tuesday 4/17 “To Build a Fire” Vocabulary Quiz (7th and 8th Grade)

Wednesday 4/18 Class Poetry Competition (6th-8th Grade) Parents Welcome!

Thursday 4/19 School Poetry Competition

Friday 4/20 Grandparents Day! (Minimum Day)

Monday 4/23 – Liberty and Equality Unit Exam (8th Grade)

Friday 4/27 – Poe and Poetry Unit Exam (7th Grade)

Monday 5/14-16 –Middle School CAASPP State Testing

Monday 5/21-23 – Joshua Tree Field Trip! (7th)

Please have a conversation with your student about which day they plan to complete traffic duty. As a reminder, each student is expected to stay until 3:15-3:20 for traffic one day during assigned week.

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Hello!

In just over two months, your child with be an 8th grader! The year is coming to a close, below are some important dates.

Friday, April 13 (10:00 – 11:10) Half-Day/End of Q3 , Disney Day! Last math quiz of Q3

Thursday, April 19 – Poetry Contest!

Friday, April 20 – Grandparents’ Day/Half-Day

Saturday, April 21 – OTA Gala

Friday, April 27 (10:00 – 11:10) – Math Exam (Percents and Proportional Relationships)

Friday, May 11 (10:00 – 11:10) – Math Quiz (Probability/Statistics)

Monday, May 14-18 – Middle School CAASPP State Testing

Monday, May 21-25 – Joshua Tree Field Trip

Monday, May 28 – Memorial Day (No School)

Monday June 4-5 (10:00 – 11:10) – Final Math MAP Test

Friday, June 8 (10:00 – 11:10) – Math Quiz (Probability/Statistics)

– Final Math Exam (Probability/Statistics)

– Last Day of School

Email me if there are any questions!

-Mr. Solis

(10:00 – 11:10)

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The Difference Between Jitter and Latency
By: Alexandrea Mellen , Trippen Cutout Platform Sandals Black wEhwtmpt
, 07 March 2018

Delay and jitter are naturally tied to each other, but they are not the same. Delay is a significant metric in networking that is made up of four key components: processing delay, queueing delay, transmission delay, and propagation delay. It impacts the user experience, and can change based on several factors. Jitter is based off of the delay - specifically, delay inconsistencies. Jitter is the discrepancy between the delay of two packets. It often results in packet loss and network congestion. While delay and jitter share commonalities and a link, they are not equal.

What Is Delay?

Delay is an important metric in networking that measures the amount of time it takes for a bit of data to move from one endpoint to another . Delay in networking is typically on the scale of fractions of seconds, and can change based on many factors including the location of the endpoints, the size of the packet, and the amount of traffic.

How Does Delay Differ From Latency?

Latency and delay are intrinsically linked and sometimes interchangeably used. However, they are not always the same. Delay is the time it takes for data to travel from one endpoint to another. Latency, though, may be one of two things.

Latency is sometimes considered the time a packet takes to travel from one endpoint to another, the same as the one-way delay.

More often, latency signifies the round-trip time. Round-trip time encompasses the time it takes for a packet to be sent plus the time it takes for it to return back. This does not include the time it takes to process the packet at the destination.

Network monitoring tools can determine the precise round-trip time on a given network. Round-trip time can be calculated from the source since it tracks the time the packet was sent and computes the difference upon acknowledgement of return. However, a delay between two endpoints can be difficult to determine, as the sending endpoint does not have information on the time of arrival at the receiving endpoint.

What Are The Contributors To Delay?

Delay can be understood as the collection of four key delay components: processing delay, queueing delay, transmission delay, and propagation delay.

These pieces of delay come together to make up the total delay in a network. Round-trip time consists of these delays combined to the receiving endpoint and back to the sending endpoint.

What Is The Impact Of Delay?

Delay mainly influences the user experience. In strictly audio calls, 150 ms of delay is noticeable and affects the user. In strictly video calls, 400 ms is discernible. Bringing these two call features together, joint audio and video calls should stay synced and have less than 150 ms of delay to not impact the user. However, generally speaking, it is important to keep delay as low as possible. ITU recommends network delay be maintained below 100 ms regardless.

What Is Jitter?

Packets transmitted continuously on the network will have differing delays, even if they choose the same path. This is inherent in a packet-switched network for two key reasons. First, packets are routed individually. Second, network devices receive packets in a queue, so constant delay pacing cannot be guaranteed.

This delay inconsistency between each packet is known as jitter. It can be a considerable issue for real-time communications, including IP telephony, video conferencing, and virtual desktop infrastructure. Jitter can be caused by many factors on the network, and every network has delay-time variation.

What Effects Does Jitter Have?

Congestion occurs when network devices begin to drop packets and the endpoint does not receive them. Endpoints may then request the missing packets be retransmitted, which results in congestion collapse.

With congestion, it’s important to note that the receiving endpoint does not directly cause it, and it does not drop the packets. Consider a highway with sending house A and receiving house . Congestion is not caused by because it does not have enough parking spaces. Congestion is caused by A , because it continues to send cars on the highway to .

How Do I Compensate For Jitter?

In order to make up for jitter, a jitter buffer is used at the receiving endpoint of the connection. The jitter buffer collects and stores incoming packets, so that it may determine when to send them in consistent intervals.

Playout Delay

Playout delay is the delay between when the packet arrives and when it is played out for rendering. When the jitter buffer stores incoming packets and waits to distribute them at even intervals, this increases the time between when the packet arrives and when it is played out for rendering: also known as the playout delay. This delay is introduced by the jitter buffer, as it is responsible for dictating when incoming packets are distributed.

Conclusion

Delay and jitter are innately linked, but they are not the same. Delay is the time it takes for data to move from one endpoint on the network to another. It is a complex measurement affected by multiple factors. Jitter, on the other hand, is the difference in delay between two packets. Similarly, it may also be caused by several factors on the network. Though jitter and delay share similarities, jitter is merely based off of the delay, but is not equivalent to it.

This post is based off of a Stack Overflow answer by Balázs Kreith, one of our engineers at CALLSTATS I/O. In it, he details the differences between delay and jitter and how to calculate jitter. Check out the answer on Stack Overflow .

Processing Delay

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